Calvin Cycle: Introduction and Steps

The Calvin cycle or the C3 cycle is a step in the process of photosynthesis that converts carbon dioxide into glucose. It is also called the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, discovered by Melvin Calvin, James Bassham, and Andrew Benson at the University of California, Berkeley in 1950, who also won a Nobel Prize for it in 1961.

It is a light-independent reaction and hence often known as a dark reaction. However, it does not happen in the dark, and it can happen both in the presence and absence of sunlight. It is the next step, after the light-dependent reactions, and uses its products ATP and NADPH for further chemical reactions.

The cycle takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. The CO2 enters the leaves via the stomata and diffuses to the stroma through the mesophyll cells. The Calvin cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions which uses energy in …

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